Skip to Main Content
Western Colorado University Logo FIND
Leslie J. Savage Library

ESS 181 - Foundations of Exercise & Sport Science: APA

ESS 181

Class Guide: Resources for Research

APA General Rules

  • Titles of works are in sentence case: Capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon, and any proper nouns. Otherwise, lowercase.
    • Example: Modern library services: An overview of Leslie J. Savage Library
  • If available, APA 7 requires a DOI for all works that have one — whether print or digital. If a print work does not have a DOI do not include it in the reference citation.
    • A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. A DOI will help your reader easily locate a document from your citation. Think of it like a Social Security number for the article you’re citing — it will always refer to that article, and only that one. While a web address (URL) might change, the DOI will never change.

APA Reference Examples


One Author: 

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI (if available)

Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a new science. Penguin.

Two authors:

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. American Psychological Association.

Book with No Author:

Title (# edition). (Year of Publication). Publisher.

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Merriam- Webster.

Edited Book, No Author:

Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher. DOI (if available)

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. Russell Sage Foundation.

Edited Book with an Author or Authors:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (E. Editor, Ed.). Publisher. DOI (if available)

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed.). Anchor.


Edition Other Than the First:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (# edition). Publisher. DOI (if available)

Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). University of Chicago Press.


Article in a Magazine:

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Article in Journal Paginated by Volume:

Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue:

Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.



Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. DOI

Buhs, J. B. (2013). Camping with Bigfoot: Sasquatch and the varieties of middle-class resistance to consumer culture in late twentieth-century North America. Journal of Popular Culture46(1), 38–58.


With issue & volume numbers:

Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science365(6457), 981–982.

Without issue & volume numbers:

Nasar, S., & Gruber, D. (2006, August 28). Manifold destiny. The New Yorker.


Use the same formats for both print books and ebooks. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.

More APA Resources


Profile Photo
Emma Schmidtke
she / her / hers
Room 210, Savage Library

APA In-Text Citations

Basic Format for In-Text Citations:

Parenthetical citation: (Gleick, 1987)

Narrative citation: This is a fact, according to Gleick (1987).

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers.

© 2019 Western Colorado University