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Leslie J. Savage Library

SCI 120 - Living Planet: Citations

SCI 120

Library Class Guide


Journal of Experimental Biology Guidelines

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3.3.3. References References in text
References in the text should be cited using the Harvard (name, date) referencing system.

Each reference cited in the text must be listed in the Reference list and vice versa: please check these carefully. Where references are cited only in supplementary information, please provide a separate supplementary reference list and do not include these in the main reference list.

Literature citations in text are as follows.

  • One author – (Jones, 1995) or (Jones, 1995; Smith, 1996).
  • Two authors – (Jones and Kane, 1994) or (Jones and Kane, 1994; Smith, 1996).
  • More than two authors – (Jones et al., 1995) or (Jones et al., 1995a,b; Smith et al., 1994, 1995).
  • Manuscripts accepted for publication but not yet published: include in Reference list and cite as (Jones et al., in press).
  • Manuscripts posted on preprint servers but not yet published: include in Reference list and cite as (Smith et al., 2016 preprint).
  • Citation of unpublished work: we discourage citation of unpublished data; if it is necessary, use the format (S. P. Jones, unpublished observations/data). Unpublished data cannot be included in the Reference list.
  • PhD theses: include in Reference list and cite as (Smith, 2016 ).
  • Website URLs: cite in the text but do not include in the Reference list; provide the URL and, if the website is frequently updated, the date that the site was accessed.
  • Personal communications (i.e. the unpublished observations of other scientists): when a person who is not an author on the paper is the source of unpublished data, those data should be cited as a personal communication using the format (full name, institution, personal communication). Personal communications should not be cited in the Reference list and will only be published when substantiated by written permission (e.g. email) from the scientist cited.
  • Dataset: we recommend that all publicly available datasets are fully referenced in the reference list with an accession number or unique identifier such as a DOI. Cite as (Jones and Jane, 1994). Reference List
References are listed in alphabetical order according to surname and initials of first author.
  • Use the following style:


Rivera, A. R. V., Wyneken, J. and Blob, R. W. (2011). Forelimb kinematics and motor patterns of swimming loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): are motor patterns conserved in the evolution of new locomotor strategies? J. Exp. Biol. 214, 3314-3323.


Hochachka, P. W. and Somero, G. N. (2002). Biochemical Adaptation: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Book chapter

Feller, G. (2008). Enzyme function at low temperatures in psychrophiles. In Protein Adaptation in Extremophiles (ed. K. S. Siddiqui and T. Thomas), pp. 35-69. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Preprint server

Baillie-Johnson, P., van den Brink, S. C., Balayo, T., Turner, D. A. and Martinez Arias, A. (2014). Generation of aggregates of mouse ES cells that show symmetry breaking, polarisation and emergent collective behaviour in vitro. bioRxiv doi:10.1101/005215.

PhD thesis

Jones, A. R. (2016). Title of thesis. PhD thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Dataset with persistent identifier

Zheng, L.-Y., Guo, X.-S., He, B., Sun, L.-J., Peng, Y. and Dong, S.-S. (2011). Genome data from sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). GigaScience Database.

Kingsolver, J. G., Hoekstra, H. E., Hoekstra, J. M., Berrigan, D., Vignieri, S. N., Hill, C. E., Hoang, A., Gibert, P. and Beerli, P. (2001). Data from: The strength of phenotypic selection in natural populations. Dryad Digital Repository.

  • If there are more than 10 authors, use 'et al.' after the 10th author.
  • Within a group of papers with the same first author, list single author papers first, then papers with two authors, then et al. papers. If more than one reference exists for each type, arrange in date order. Use a and b for papers published in the same year.


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