Basic Format for In-Text Citations:
Parenthetical citation: (Gleick, 1987)
Narrative citation: This is a fact, according to Gleick (1987).
If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers.
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI (if available)
Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a new science. Penguin.
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. American Psychological Association.
Book with No Author:
Title (# edition). (Year of Publication). Publisher.
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Merriam- Webster.
Edited Book, No Author:
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher. DOI (if available)
Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. Russell Sage Foundation.
Edited Book with an Author or Authors:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (E. Editor, Ed.). Publisher. DOI (if available)
Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed.). Anchor.
Edition Other Than the First:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (# edition). Publisher. DOI (if available)
Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). University of Chicago Press.
Article in a Magazine:
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Article in Journal Paginated by Volume:
Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Article in Journal Paginated by Issue:
Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. DOI
Buhs, J. B. (2013). Camping with Bigfoot: Sasquatch and the varieties of middle-class resistance to consumer culture in late twentieth-century North America. Journal of Popular Culture, 46(1), 38–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpcu.12015
With issue & volume numbers:
Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science, 365(6457), 981–982. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay3550
Without issue & volume numbers:
Nasar, S., & Gruber, D. (2006, August 28). Manifold destiny. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/08/28/manifold-destiny
Use the same formats for both print books and ebooks. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL
WSCUniversity. (2014, February 20). The Western Way [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QaWu3cCH1bo.
Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production company.
Burton, T. (Director). (1994). Ed Wood [Film]. Touchstone.
In APA, no personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
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