Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Western Colorado University Logo FIND
🔍
LIBRARY
ACCOUNT
ASK A
QUESTION
BOOK A
LIBRARIAN
Leslie J. Savage Library

Leslie J. Savage Library: Ecology

Video tutorials from the Library

CITATIONS

Ecology

IN TEXT CITATIONS

An in-text citation contains information on author and year, so that someone reading your paper can find the fuller information in your bibliography and then follow-up and read the original source of your information. An in-text citation can be created in many ways depending upon your writing style.

General guidelines:

  • If there is one author, include the author's last name and date of publication
  • If there are two authors, include both authors' last names and date of publication
  • If there are three or more authors, include the last name of the first author followed by et al. (in italics) and date of publication

Example 1:

In addition, floods are fundamental in driving the disturbance regime (Bendix 2000).

Example 2:

Our results show that the favorable conditions hypothesis (Levine and D'Antonio 1999) and resource heterogeneity hypothesis (Davies et al. 2005) may not be mutually exclusive.

Example 3:

Root porosity for Carex nigra was similar to those obtained by Visser et al. (2000) in hydroponic cultures.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Only the first word and proper nouns (including genus, but not species) are capitalized.
  • Journal articles, chapters in books and books themselves are all cited differently.

JOURNAL ARTICLES:

One author

Last name, First initial. Second initial. Date. Title. Journal title volume number:pages.

Example:

Abrams, P. A. 1987. The functional responses of adaptive consumers of two resources. Theoretical Population Biology 32:262-288.

 

Two or more authors

Last name, First initial. Second initial., First initial. Second initial. Last name, and First initial. Second initial. Last name. Date. Title. Journal title volume number:pages.

Example:

Hjalten, J., K. Danell, and P. Lundberg. 1993. Herbivore avoidance by association: vole and hare utilization of woody plants. Oikos 68:125-131.

 

Chapter in a book

Last name, First initial. Second initial., First initial. Second initial. Last name, and First initial. Second initial. Date. Chapter title. Pages in First initial. Second initial. Last name and First initial. Second initial. Last name. Book title. Publisher name, City of publication, State of publication, Country of publication.

Example:

Abrams, P. A., B. A. Menge, and G. G. Mittelbach. 1995. The role of indirect effects in food webs. Pages 371-395 in G. Polis and K. O. Winemiller, editors. Food webs: integration of patterns and dynamics. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, USA.

 

Book

Last name, First initial. Second initial., First initial. Last name, and First initial. Second initial. Last name. Date. Book title. Publisher, City of publication, State of publication, Country of publication.

Example:

Drake, J. A., F. DiCastri, and R. H. Groves. 1989. Biological invasions: a global perspective. Wiley, New York, New York, USA.

 

Government document

Last name, First initial. Second initial., First initial. Second initial. Last name, and First initial. Last name. Document title. Report number. Government agency, Agency division, City of publication, State of publication, Country of publication.

Example:
Maschinski, J., H. D. Hammond, and L. Holter, editors. Southwestern rare and endangered plants: proceedings of the second conference. General Technical Report RM-GTR-283. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Information Literacy and Instructional Design Librarian

Profile Photo
Melissa Huang
Contact:
1 Western Way
Library 210
Gunnison, CO 81230
970-943-2898

© 2019 Western Colorado University